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In preparing this work I have been much indebted to the books of Langstroth, Quinby, Prof. Cook, King, and some others, as wellas to all the Bee-Journals; but, more than to all these, have I been indebted to the thousands of friends scattered far and wide, who have so kindly furnished the fullest particulars in regard to all the new improvements, as they have come up, in our beloved branch of rural industry. Those who questioned me so much, a few years ago are now repaying by giving me such long kind letters in answer to any inquiry I may happen to make, that I often feel ashamed to think what meager answers I have been obliged to give them under similar circumstances. A great part of this A B C book is really the work of the people, and the task that devolves on me is to collect, con- dense, verify, and utilize, what has been scattered through thousands of letters, for years past. My own apiary has been greatly devoted to carefully testing each new device, in- vention, or process, as it came up; the task has been a very pleasant one ; and if the perusal of the following pages affords you as much pleasure, I shall feel amply repaid.

AST ROO Medina, Ohio, Nov., 1877.

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INTER ODUC TION:

About the year 1865, during the month of August,a swarm of bees passed overhead where we were at work; and my fellow-workman, in answer to some of my inquiries re- specting their habits, asked what I would give for them. I, not dreaming he could by any means call them down, offered him a dollar, and he started after them.. To my astonish- ment, he, in a short time, returned with them hived in a rough box he had hastily picked up, and, at that moment, I commenced. learning my A B Cin bee culture. Before night I had questioned not only the bees, but every one I knew, who could tell me any thing about these strange new acquaintances of mine. Our books and papers were overhauled that evening; but the little that I found only puzzled me the more, and kindled anew the de- sire to explore and follow out this new hobby of mine; for, dear reader, Ihave been all my life much given to hobbies and new projects.

Farmers who had kept bees assured me that they once paid, when the country was new, but of late years they were of no profit, and everybody was abandoning the business. I had some headstrong views in the matter, and in a few days I visited Cleveland, ostensibly on other business, but I had really little interest in any thing until I could visit the book- stores and look over the books on bees. I found but two, and I very quickly chose Lang- stroth. May God reward and for ever bless Mr. Langstroth for the kind and pleasant way in which he unfolds to his readers the truths and wonders of creation, to be found inside of a bee-hive.

What a gold-mine that book seemed to me, as I looked it over on my journey home! never was romance so enticing; no, not even Robinson Crusoe; and, best of all, right at my own home I could live out and verify all the wonderful things told therein. Late as it was, I yet made an observatory-hive, and raised queens from worker-eggs before winter, and wound up by purchasing a queen of Mr. L. for $20.00. I should, in fact, have wound up the whole business, queen and all, most effectually, had it not been for some timely advice toward Christmas, from a plain practical farmer near by. With his assistance, and by the purchase of some more bees, I brought all safely through the winter. Through Mr. L., I learned of Mr. Wagner; shortly afterward he was induced to re-commence the pub- lication of the American Bee Journal; and through this I gave accounts monthly of my blunders and occasional successes.

Like many others, I could not be content without dabbling in patent hives; and, in ee of good advice to the contrary, as soon as I was fairly started I bought rights and thence- forth kept the most of my bees in American hives. After a trial of both kinds, the Amer- ican and Langstroth, side by side, for 5 years, the combs were transferred from the Amer- ican back to the L. frames. In 1867, news came across the ocean from Germany, of the honey-extractor; and with the aid of a simple home-made machine I took 1000 Ibs. of honey from 20 stocks, and increased them to 35. This made quite a sensation, and numbers em- barked in the new business; but when I lost all but 11 of the 85 the next winter, many said, ‘‘ There! I told you how it would turn out.”

I said nothing, but went to work quietly, and increased the 11 to 48, during the one sea- son, not using the extractor at all. The 48 were wintered entirely without loss, and I think it was, mainly, because I took care and pains with each individual colony. From the 48, I secured 6162 lbs. of extracted honey, and sold almost the entire crop for 25¢. per Jb. This capped the climax, and inquiries in regard to the new industry began to come in from

INTRODUCTIOR.

all sides; beginners were eager to know what hives to adopt, and where to get honey- extractors. As the hives in use seemed very poorly adapted to the use of the extractor, and as the machines offered for sale were heavy and poorly adapted to the purpose, be sides being “‘ patented,” there really seemed to be no other way before me than to manufac- ture these implements. Unless I did this, I should becompelled to undertake a correspond- ence that would oceupy a great. part of my time, without affording any compensation of any account. The fullest directions I knew how to give for making plain simple hives, etc., were from time to time published in the A. B. J.; but the demand for further partic- ulars was such that a circular was printed, and, shortly after, a second edition; then anoth- er, and another. These were intended to answerx the greater part of the queries; and from the cheering words received in regard to them, it seemed the idea was a happy one.

Until 1873, all these circulars were sent out gratuitously ; but at that time it was deemed

est to issue a quarterly at 25¢ per year, for the purpose of answering these inquiries. The very first number was received with such favor that it was immediately changed to a monthly, at 75c. The name given it was ‘‘GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE,” and it was gradually enlarged until, in 1876, the price was changed to $1.00. During all this time, it has served the purpose excellently, of answering questions as they come up, both old and new ; and even if some new subscriber should ask in regard to something that had been . discussed at length but a short time before, it was an easy matter to refer him toit,or send him the number containing the subject in question.

GLEANINGS is now about commencing its eighth year, and inquirers do not like to be referred to something that was published a half-dozen years ago. Besides, the deci- sions that were then arrived at may need to be considerably modified to meet the wants of the present time. Now, if we go over the whole matter again every year or two, for the benefit of those who have recently subscribed, we shall do our regular subscribers injust- ice, for they will justly complain that GLEANINGS is the same thing over and over again, year after year.

The best time to transfer bees is in the spring; and every spring, we have been besieged with so many inquiries that we, last spring, to avoid repetition, published the whole pro- cess at length in our circular; and we have since then given away 10,000 of these, paying postage ourselves. I know those who received them felt grateful for the kindness, for many of them said so; and I know, too, that they would have willingly paid us for them, were it not for the trouble it would have been for each separate person to have remitted us three or five cents.

Now you can see whence the necessity for this A BC book, its office, and the place we purpose to have it fill. In writing it I have taken pains to thoroughly post myself in re- gard to each subject treated, not only by consulting all the books and journals treating of bee culture, which I have always ready at hand, but by going out into the fields, writing to those who can furnish information in that special direction, or by sacrificing a colony of bees, if need be, until I am perfectly satisfied. Still further: this book is all printed from type kept constantly standing, and as the sheets are printed only so fast as wanted, any thing that is discovered, at any future time, to be an error, can be promptly righted. For the same reason, all new inventions and discoveries that may come up they are coming up constantly can be embodied in the work just as soon as they have been tested suffi- ciently to entitle them to a place in such a work. In other words, I purpose it to be never out of date or behind the times. Begging your pardon for this lengthy introduction, we will, with your sanction, proceed to business. Nov., 1877.

Nearly two years have passed since the above was written. It is now July, 1879. The business has increased and developed so much that we are now located ona piece of ground of 17 acres, and the pictures in the front give you a little idea of our building and surroundings. The apiaries, of which you get a little glimpse, cover about 24 acres; there are seven of them, like the hexagonal apiary shown in the back of this book. The central one has a flag in the center of it, on which are the words, “By INDUSTRY WE THRIVE.” The whole seven apiaries will accommodate 500 hives. We have, at this writing, 228 hives, mostly employed in queen-rearing. Three or four boys and girls are constantly employed in rearing and shipping the queens. More are employed in making the hives and imple- ments, and still more are at work on the journal, making this book, ete., ete. In fact,

INTRODUCTION.

there are now between 70 and 80 of us, all together. Almost every trade and industry is represented in the building and on the grounds. We make all kinds of wood-work, have a tin- shop, carpenter -shop, blacksmith- shop, machine shop, printing-office, book-bind- ery, Sewing-room, paint-shop, varnishing and japanning room, wax-room where the founda- tion is made, a room where leather is worked considerably in making smokers, and we have almost every thing except a grog-shop. There used to be two of those a year ago, just across the railroad, but both have closed up business now. I rather suspect the at- mosphere we have brought into this part of the town was more than they could stand. If you should happen along here about noon, you would find that the engineer always stops the engine promptly at 10 minutes of noon, and that the hands then gather in the largest room in the building around an organ that they have purchased with their own money. In fact, it was purchased by each one giving a day’s work. After all join in singing a hymn, your humble servant is expected to read a verse or two from the Bible, and close the 10 minutes devotional exercise with a few brief remarks and prayer. I am often asked by visitors if this noon-day service was an idea of mine. I reply that it was as unexpected to me as to any one else. It would be a long story, to tell how it originated. God brought it about, I am firmly persuaded. Do you wonder saloons do not prosper near us? Right over the open window at which I sit writing, is a stone bee-hive which you can see in the picture. Over the hive is this inscription: “IN GoD WE TrRusT.”’ So long as we continue to trust in him, and look to him daily for help, the business will continue to prosper, and we shall be of use to ourselves, and to all those about us; but just so soon as we cease to trust in him, the business will go down; saloons will spring up about us; and ruin and devastation will be the end. There are quite a number of us who know what it is to be frequenters of saloons, and who realize that it is by the grace of God we are kept where we are now. It is not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord of

hosts.”’ [OCTOBER, 1879.]

The following, descriptive of the picture of our apiary a few leaves back, is extracted fiom the November GLEANINGS:

THE HOME OF THE ILONEY-BEES.— AN APIARY OF 500 HIVES.

Isn't it pretty? Had you worked and planned and studied over it as we have, dear reader, you might perhaps appreciate it in a different way from what you do; but I am pretty sure you admire it, any way. You observe there are 6 apiaries surrounding a central one, making 7 in all. There are 61 hives in each apiary, and the small apiaries of 7 hives each, in the corners, make the number nearly 500. The hives in each apiary are exactly 7 feet from center to center, and the streets are 24 feet broad. The gravel walks in the cen- ter of each street are 4 feet wide. The hives face different points of the compass, as ex- plained in the back of this book. Coal cinders are placed around each hive to keep the weeds down, and then the space before and around the entrance is covered with clean, _ white sand. This is not only to give the bees a clean and pleasant door-yard, but it is to enable us, in passing, to see if all is right. For instance, if robbing has been going on, you will see the dead bees on the white sand, even if you are quite a distance away. Day be- fore yesterday, in passing, I saw a young queen on the sand near the entrance of a hive, and out near the grass was another one.

‘“* Hallo, Will,” said I, ‘‘ what does this mean ?”’

“Oh! I forgot to cut out those queen-cells,’’ said he; and he opened the hive ‘‘ quicker,” and found nine good cells, and two torn down. You see, the white sand saved me 9 queen- cells, that one time.

The grass is all kept in nice trim with the lawn-mower, and the labor is very much less, for so large an apiary, than to keep the ground clean with a hoe, as I have formerly recom- mended. It is now the middle of October; but the grass, in consequence of the frequent mowings, is as fresh and green as in June. To add to the beauty of it, dandelions have sprung up, and their bright yellow blossoms dotting the green here and there make a pret- tier picture than I can describe, especially as one cr more Italians are found on every blossom, on pleasant days.

On the outside of the row of evergreens, which are planted for a windbreak, is a car- riage-drive, and this drive extends off to the south, down by the pond, and through my creek-bottom garden. We planted 100 evergreens; only five of them died, and the nursery- man says he will replace those, Of 500 grapevines, planted last fall, I belieye only about 7

INTRODUCTION.

died. The building with the wings is the honey house, as we call it. There we store all the tools and implements, all the empty hives, the sugar for feeding, etc. We are talking of a railroad to run through the apiary into this house, but the light wheelbarrow seems to answer so well, we may not build it.

. You will notice that the house-apiary has changed so much that one would hardly recog- nize an old acquaintance. To Mr. Gray is the credit due for having made it so pretty, and so convenient for the bees, which we are just putting in the upper story. The old wooden roof used to leak some, and so we have put on atin one. Leaking is a very bad feature for any roof, for hive or building. Tin, if kept painted, makes a sure thing of it. The chaff tenement-hive looks as large as life, or a little larger, and perhaps ‘‘ twice as natural.” You will observe, in the center of each apiary, or near the center, four chaff hives. These are to assist in giving landmarks, both to the bees and the apiarist. Just now we are giy- ing chaff hives to all that we decide to winter. The apiary is not full of hives, as repre- sented in the cut, but we number, house-apiary and all, just 314. About two hundred will probably be preserved for wintering. The remainder we shall keep for those who want a queen very late; and, after the queen is sold, they will be united with the others. The grapevines, this season (the first), have been trained on a single stake, but they have made © such a healthy growth, especially those which have been mowed around with the AYER; mower, that we shall have to get out 500 trellises, ready for next June.

I wanted the artist to get the inscription on the flag, but the letters would have been so small you probably could not have read it. Instead of a dozen or more rows of mam- moth sunflowers, he has made only one, and these resemble some tropical plant more than those out in the field. The masses of foliage this side of the sunflowers represent the bor- age. It is yet in full bloom, and fairly covered with bees from morning till night, but nothing like the Simpson honey-plant and the Spider-flowers. The Spider-flowers are growing right down at the right-hand corner; the Simpson-plant, at the upper right-hand corner of the honey-farm. The highway, where the man is riding along on horseback, runs east and west. I wish I could take you down by the pond and show you my creek- bottom garden; perhaps I will some day. I was at work in it this morning with my hoe, so early that I had to work by the light of the stars. I knelt in the soft rich ground (where the cultivator had been running the night before among the plants) and thanked God for this honey-farm, and the opportunities it gives me of helping you all.

Sept. 2, 1880.—We have had another year’s experience with honey-plants, and the result is such that I have decided to plant the whole of the available ground to Simpson and Spi- der plants. I have just been enjoying the dull season amazingly in underdraining our creek- bottom garden, and setting out Simpson-plants. From seed planted in a cold frame in March, we now have beautiful plants humming with bees from daybreak until dark. A little less than one-fourth acre of Spider-plants makes the most beautiful floral sight I ever beheld, and creates such a panic among the bees at dawn that you would think them rob- bing. The honey from them is very white, and beautiful in flavor.

June, 1882.—A kind Providence has still continued to prosper us, dear friends, and we have just issued the third number of JUVENILE GLEANINGS, supplementing the older GLEANINGS. Our building is now so crowded on every floor, that a new factory is in contemplation, and about one hundred hands are at work in the building and on the grounds. The children seem to have taken to the little bee-journal as ducks take to water, and the number of their little letters now is greater than we can possibly find room for.

Jan., 1883.— During the season that is past, sume of the largest crops of honey have been harvested ever known, and the progeny of a single queen has gathered pretty well toward the enormous quantity of 1000 lbs. of honey. The industry has in several directions begun to assume massive proportions. The demand for one-pound section boxes has been so great that single shipments have gone across the ocean, of nearly 100,000. Wax for comb foundation is getting scarce, and we begin to fear the product of the world will not supply the demand. <A kind Father seems still smiling on us at the Ilome of the Honey-Bees.

Sept., 1883.—Our new factory is now nearly ready for occupation. During the summer we have employed between 140 and 150 hands. Two shorthand writers now take down what your humble servant dictates in regard to business and the matter for the journal, and each one is supplied with one of the latest improved type-writers, for copying the short- hand notes. The new factory is built on to the old one, on the right-hand side of the pic-

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ture, so as to form a sort of wing, or L (see frontispiece), and extends from the old factery

to the gate, seen in the margin of the picture. The trade in implements for bee culture has

been larger than ever before known, and the production cf honey has been correspondingly ‘increased. eae

April, 1884.—Again we are called upon for another edition of our ABC. Since its first issue we have tried to keep it fully up to the times by constant additions and alterations. During this time, over 15,000 copies have been sold in this and other countries, and the de- mand is still unabated. The subscription list of GLEANINGS has swelled, until at the close of last year we had 6388 subscribers. Our general business has also increased since last year, so that, even with the new addition to our factory (a cut of which we take pleasure in showing you in frontispiece), we are crowded for room. We are glad to note the continued improvement and increase in apiculture during the year past, throughout our country, es- pecially in Texas, and also throughout the world; and with this advance in our science we have been pleased to see a correspondingly increased demand for honey.

It may be well to add, that in the preparation of this work I have been greatly indebted to the valuable services of my friend Walter B. House, of Saugatuck, Mich. The Glossary and Index are wholly his work. He has also added many important suggestions in various parts of the body of the book. The valuable item in regard to raising turnips for honey, and turning them under as a soiling crop, was given by him. The article on HONEY-HOUSES was suggested and written by himself, I supposing that, of course, he would know about all kinds of houses. .

One of-the lady clerks in our office, who has been helping us in the business almost from its infancy, has written the following lines, suggesting the growth of what was, not long ago, but a grain of mustard seed. It was written to be read at the dedication of our new factory, mentioned above.

When Novice first began to tell Some facts about the bee,

The story pleased the folks so well,

T’ll edit it,” said he.

The GLEANINGS of ten years ago Was small; and placed beside

The GLEANINGS of to-day, doth show How great has been its stride.

Though ‘‘ Barney was a novice then, And ‘“‘ Boss” was typo too,

And wrote his copy with a pen, Still GLEANINGS lived and grew.

And when the windmill ruled the day, And sometimes rather failed,

The foot-press often came in play, That GLEANINGS might be mailed.

All hands were called to come and fold When GLEANINGS went to press;

And paper day, in times of old, Was one of pasty mess.

When the type-writer’s click was heard, The pen was putin rack;

The windmill flew off like a bird, An engine took the track.

Subseriptions came and brought good will,

And business multiplied;

Our Homes made GLEANINGS stronger still:

’, T was on the Savior’s side.

And we have garnered golden sheaves, Which steady grew in store,

Which, in the A BC book, make Us rich in bee-man’s lore.

The busy little engine steamed, And puffed both night and day;

For orders, more than we had dreamed, Poured in from far away.

Two busy years went flitting by, And found our space too sma!l; So then we built a factory We thought would hold us all.

While our new engine, stately, strong, Its shaft of belting moved,

Which made the buzz-saws hum their songs,

While cutting out their grooves. While from our large new printing-press, Which filled so well its place, Came GLEANINGS forth in its new dress,— Twas worn with smiling face.

Her ‘“‘ Heads of Grain ’’ were full indeed; Her *“‘ Blasted Hopes ”’ were small;

Because success would write with speed; But failure, searce at all.

The boys and girls wrote letters too, To say that ‘* Pa keeps bees;”’ Until a barrowful they grew, And yet they did not cease.

So JUVENILE came on behind, To carry them along,

Impelled by aid of Hasty mind, It soon grew large and strong.

But, oh! the factory is too small— With joy we build again;

We now behold the rising wall, Built up by busy men.

And then the cheerful buzz of biz Will fill the new wing too.

And Novice’s contented phiz A broader field will view.

And at the sacred hour of noon, Ten golden minutes spend,