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THE

BRITISH

FLOWER GARDEN;

CONTAINING

CcloutTir figures & Descriptions

OF THE

MOST ORNAMENTAL $ CURIOUS

HARDY FLOWERING PLANTS,

INCLUDING

ANNUALS, BIENNIALS, & PERENNIALS ;

WITH THEIR

SCIENTIFIC AND ENGLISH NAMES;

BEST METHOD OF CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION;

THE HEIGHTS THEY GENERALLY ATTAIN;

Or any other Information respecting them that may be considered of importance.

BY

ROBERT SWEET, F.L.S.

Author of Ilortus Britannicus, Hortus Suburbanus Londinensis, Botanical Cultivator , Geraniacece, Cislincce , the British Warblers , <$%*. fyc.

The Drawings by E. D. SMITH, F.L.S.

VOLUME II.

LONDON.

PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR,

BY W. SIMPKIN AND R. MARSHALL,

STATION ERS’-h ALL-COURT, LU DG ATE-STREET.

1825^ 1827.

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BOOKS QUOTED,

IN ADDITION TO THOSE ENUMERATED IN

VOLUME I.

Ann. Bot. Annals of Botany by C. Ko- nig and J. Sims, 2 vol. 8vo. London , I. 1805. II. 1806.

Desv. journ. bot. Desvaux. Journal de Botanique. Paris , 8vo. 1808 1814.

D. Don in edinb. phil. journ. Don (David.) In Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 8 vo. Edinburgh.

Don. mon. all. Don (George.) A Mono- graph of the genus Allium, from the Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society. Edinburgh , 8vo. 1827.

Eng. bot. Smith (James Edward.) En- glish Botany, 8vo. London , 1790 1814.

Fisch. adumb. gen. adenoph. Fischer (F.) Adumbratio generis Adenophorae, 4to.

Fisch. ind. pi. hort. imp. pet. Fischer (F .) Index Plantarum, anno 1824. in Horto Botanico Imperial! Petropolitano* vi- gentium, 12mo.

Flor. ind. Flora Indica, or descriptions of Indian plants by the late W. Rox- burgh, Svo. Serampore , vol 1. 1820, v. 2. 1824.

Frcel. gent. Froelich (Jos. Aloys.) De Gentian^ libellus, 1 vol. 8vo. Erlan- gce , 1796.

Gouan. Must. Gouan (Anton.) Illustra- tiones Botanicae, 1 vol. fol. Tiguri, 1773.

Hull. helv. Von Haller (Albert.) His- toria stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae, 3 vol. fol. Bernce, 1768.

Jacq. obs. Von Jacquin (Nicol. Jos.) Observationes botanicae, 4 fasc. fol. Vindobonce, ' 1764 1771 .

Juss. ann t mus. Jussieu. Annales du Musbum d’histoire naturelle, 4to. Paris.

Lehm. asperif. Lehman (Joh. Georg. Chr.) Plantae e familia Asperifolia- rum nuciferae, 2 vol. 4to. Berolini , 1818.

Lehm. hist, nicot. Lehman (J. G. C.) Ge- neris Nicotianarum historia. Pars Bo- tanica, 4to. 1818.

Lindl. coll. bot. Lindley (John.) Collec- tanea Botanica, 1 vol. fol. London.

Linn. mant. Linnaeus. Mantissa plan- tarum, 1 vol. 8vo. Holmice, 1767, ed. 2. 1771.

Linn, suppl. Linnaeus filius (Carolus.) Supplementum plantarum, 1 vol. Svo. Brunsvigice , 1781.

Mill. ic. Miller (Philip.) Figures of plants described in the Gardener’s Dic- tionary, 2 vol. fol. London, 1760.

Nutt. trav. in Ark. Nuttall (Thomas.) Travels in the Arkansa.

Pall. act. pet . Pallas (P. S.) Commen-

tarii Academicae Scientiarum imperia- lis Petropolitanae, 4to. Petropoli, 1728 —1751.

Pluk. mant. Plukenett (Leonard.) Al- magesti botanici mantissa, 1 vol. 4to. Londini, 1700.

Pour. act. tolos. Pourret. Histoire et M6moires de l’Acad^nrie royale des sciences, etc. de Toulouse, 3 vol. 4to. Toulouse, 1782 1788.

Renealm. spec. Reneaulme (Paul.) Spe- cimen historiae plantarum, 1 vol. 4to. Paris , 1611.

Roth catal. bot. Roth. (Alb. Wilh.) Ca- talecta Botanica, 3 vol. Svo. Lipsice , 1699.

Rivin. pentapet. Ordo plantarum flore ir- regulari peutapetalo, 1vol. fol. Lipsice, 1797—1805.

Ruiz et Pav.Jl. pcruv. Ruiz (Hippol.) et Pavon (Jos.) Florae Peruviana et Chi- lensis, 3 vol. 8vo. Madriti, 1798—1799.

Savi bot. etr. Savi (Gaetano.) Botanicon Etruscum, 2 vol. Svo. Pisis, 1808

1815.

Schousb. maroc. Schousboe (P. K. A.) Iagttagelser over vcextriget i Marocco, 1 vol. 4to. Kiobenham, 1800,— ed germ. Leipzig , 1801.

Schrad. neu. journ. Schrader (Henr. Adolph.) Neues journal fur die Bo- tanik, 8 fasc. 8vo. Gottingen, 1805 1810.

Smith comp . ft. brit. Smith (James Ed- ward.) Compendium Florae Britan- nicae, edit. 4, 12mo. Londini, 1S25.

Smith prodr. fi. grcec. Sibthorp (J.) et Smith (J. E.) Florae Graecae prodro- mus, 2 vol. 8vo. Londini, 1806

1816.

Spreng. syst. veg. Sprengel (Kurt.) Sys- tema Vegetabilium, 4 vol. 8vo. Got- tingce, 1825—1827.

Tenore fior. neap. Tenore (Michel.) Flora Napolitana, 6 fasc. fol. Napoli, 1811, et seq.

Tliunb. glad. Thunberg (Car. Petr.) Dissertatio de Gladiolus. Upsal, 1784.

(Jster. n. bot. ann. Usteri (Paul.) Neue annalen der Botanik, 17 stuck. Svo. Zurich, 1794—1799.

Vahl enum. Vahl (Martinus.) Enume- rate plantarum, 2 vol. 8vo. Haunice , 1805-1806.

Vent, choix. Ventenat (Etienne Pierre.) Choix des plantes, 10 fasc. fol. Paris , 1803—1808.

Vent. dec. Ventenat (E. P.) Decas generum novorum, 4to. Paris , 1808.

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101

ECHIUM australe.

Oval-leaved Viper s-Bugloss,

Natural Order, BoRAGiNEiE, Brown prodr. 492.

D iv. III. Fructus gymno-tetraspermus. Faux coroll ae

nuda. Plantce plerurnque lierbacece et asperce. Juss. gen. 130.

ECHIUM, Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla tubo brevi, limbo ampliore campanulato, oblique 5-lobo inaequali. Stigma 2-fidum. Flores spicati aut spicato-paniculati , in spiculis secundi. Species quadam suffrutescentes . Juss. loc. cit.

E. australe , caule tuberculato-hispido diffuso, foliis caulinis ovatis utrinque attenuatis, spica dichotoma, staminibus corol- lam subaequantibus calyce duplo longioribus.

Echium australe. Lam . ill. p. 413. Pers. syn. 1. p. 164. Rcem. et Schult. syst, 4. p. 720 .

Annual. Stem spreading, forked, more or less branched, thickly clothed with small brown tubercles, and spreading hairs; from a foot to 18 inches in height. Leaves ovate, tapering at both ends, the upper side covered with minute rough tubercles, and both sides with small rigid hairs, strongly veined underneath : root leaves petiolate, stem ones sessile. Spikes secund, or the flowers all facing one way, lengthening as the flowers expand. Bractes leaf-like, sessile, cordate, tapering towards the point, very rough. Calyx 5-parted, increasing in size with the seeds ; segments lanceolate, acute, unequal, the upper ones smallest, hispidly hairy. Corolla large, tubular, unequal, more than double the length of the calyx, of a reddish purple, changing to blue as it fades, strongly ribbed, hairy: limb unequally

VOL. II. B

5-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted in the tube, about the length of, or scarcely as long as the corolla : filaments very hairy : anthers incumbent. Style pale red, longer than the stamens, densely hairy. Stigma bifid, the points capitate.

Our drawing of this very handsome annual plant, was taken at the Nursery of Mr. Colvill, in August last ; it had been raised from seed received from Ger- many, under the name that we have adopted. It is a native of the South of Europe, and succeeds well, sown in a warm border in the open ground, in rather a dryish situation, where it will ripen its seeds ; in rich soil it will attain the height of 18 inches, in poorer soil it will be considerably less, but the branches spread round in all directions, so that the plants should not be too close together ; the best time for sowing the seeds is the latter end of March, or beginning of April, according to the mildness of the season; if the plants come up too close together, some of them might be transplanted, but this should be done in moist weather.

1. Calyx. 2. Corolla spread open, to show the insertion of the Stamens. 3. Stamen detached, to show the hairy Filament. 4. The 4 naked Seeds, ter- minated with the hairy Style and forked Stigma.

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102

VIOLA eriocarpa.

Woolly -capsuled Violet.

Natural Order. Viol aria:. DC. prodr . 1. p . 287.

VIOLA. Supra fol. 69.

Sect. III. Cha MJEMELANIUM. Stigma sphaeroideo-capita- tum, utrinque fasciculis pilorum onustum, foraminulo minuto sublaterali. Stylus compresso-clavatus. Stamina oblonga ap- proximata. Torus planiusculus. Capsula saepe trigona. Folia seminalia saepius subrotunda. Petala 2, ungue barbata. DC. prodr. 1. p. 300.

V. eriocarpa , scabriuscula, caulibus assurgentibus flexuosis ramosis villosis, foliis cordatis acutis dentatis ; interdum reniformibus, stipulis ovatis subdentatis, sepalis lanceolatis acutis, calcare brevissimo subsaccato, fructibus dense villosis.

Viola eriocarpa. Lewis am.journ. 5. n. 1. DC. prodr. 1. p. 301.

Viola pubescens. £ eriocarpon. Nutt, gen . amer. 1. p. 150. Botan. regist. 390.

Root perennial. Stems several, assurgent, flexuose, branching, villous, purple towards the base. Reaves cordate, acute, densely pubescent on both sides, toothed, points of the teeth curved inwards : lower leaves reniform. Petioles flattened and channelled on the upper side, and convex on the lower, villous, winged, the wing running down the stem to the next leaf. Stipules ovate or oblong, acute, more or less toothed, clasping the stem. Peduncles axillary, soli- tary, villous, with a small acute bracte about half way up. Sepals 5, unequal, lanceolate, acute, the upper one shortest, 2 side ones longest. Petals 5, yellow, 2 upper ones smallest, recurved, slightly bearded above

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the unguis with a small tuft of glandular hairs, back tinged with purple, veined, veins branching : side ones also bearded, and marked with 2 blue stripes; lower ones largest, obovate, striped with numerous branching lines, and producing a short blunt spur or pouch at the base. Stamens 5 : anthers 2-lobed, fixed by the back to the filaments, which terminates beyond them in a dry brown membrane. Germen densely villous. Style smooth, gradually thickening upwards. Stigma capi- tate, with a fascicle of white hairs on each side.

The present species is a native of North America, and several plants of it were received from thence by Mr. Colvill in 1823 ; from one of those our drawing was made last Summer: it is nearly related to Y.pubescens, but differs from that species in its spreading branched stems, and large woolly capsules ; it succeeds best in a dry border of light rich earth ; for being of rather a succulent habit, it is liable to suffer from too much moisture ; it continues to bloom nearly all the Summer, and ripens plenty of seeds ; but those must be carefully watched, and should be gathered before the capsule bursts, or they will probably be lost, as the capsule generally bursts with an elasticity which occasions all, or the greater part of the seeds to spring out ; the best time for sowing those is in March, whenever the wea- ther is fine; the plants may also be increased by dividing at the root.

1 . Calyx. 2. Petals. 3. The 5 Stamens. 4. Germen, terminated by the Style and capitate Stigma with a fascicle of hairs on each side. 5. The woolly Capsule. 6. The same spread open, to show the seeds.

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103

CARDUUS alatus.

W inged-stalked Thistle.

Natural Order . Composite. Adanson fam . 2. 103.

Sect. II. Carduaceje. Kunth Synops. 2. p . 354.

3) Carduacece verce. Kunth loc. cit. p. 363.

CARDUUS. Involucrum sphseroideum s. ovatum, imbrica- tum, rarius inerme. Receptaculum paleis setaceis tectum. Anther a basi bisetosae. Stiyma nunc bifidum. Achenia anci- pitia (v. quadrangularia.) Pappus inaequalis, pilosus, serrulatus v. puberulus. Herb® robusta, inermes v. spinosa ; perennes dioicce. Folia sessilia sinuata s. pinnatifida , dentata , basi sapius per caulem decurrentia. Flores terminates , purpurei v. albi. D. Don prodr. fl. nep. p. 167.

C. alatus , foliis subtus tomentosis subdentatis: radicalibus cordatis petiolatis ; caulinis lanceolatis decurrentibus, capi- tulis corymboso-paniculatis, involucris globosis: foliolis lan- ceolatis squarrosis.

Carduus alatus. D. Don loc. cit. in obs .

Serratula alata. Willd . enum. supp. 56. Link etium. 2. p. 297.

Biennial. Stem about two feet high, much branched, branches furrowed, more or less tomentose. Leaves densely clothed underneath with a close white tomen- tum, the upper side smooth and slightly viscous, more or less toothed, very much scented like musk: root ones large, cordate, petiolate ; upper ones lanceolate, undulate, decurrent. Flowers numerous, corymbosely paniculate, of a light rosy purple. Peduncles long and slender, furrowed. Bractes 2 or 3 on each peduncle, small, lanceolate or sometimes spatulate. Involucre campanulate, imbricate, leaflets numerous, unarmed.

lanceolate : lower ones short, bluntish, reflexed, of a light green, sometimes tipped with red : upper ones long, acute, dark purple. Receptacle flat, paleaceous : chaff long, rigid, subulate. Florets numerous, tubular, slender at the base, and ventricose upwards, deeply divided into 5 segments, which are lanceolate, bluntish, connivent. Stamens 5, filaments distinct: anthers ex- serted, all connected, each with two long aristas at the base. Style longer than the stamens, quite smooth, of a pale colour. Stigma bifid, purple, the segments spreading. Seed quadrangular, tuberculate, crowned with a radiate pappus of toothed or fringed hairs.

In referring the present plant to the genus Carduus, we have done so in agreement with Mr. D. Don’s Pro- dromus Florae Nepalensis, where the best character of the genus, in our opinion, is given ; we have been long anxiously expecting the above work, so many plants having been introduced from Nepal within those few years, and the greater part of them unnamed, so that a work of the kind was absolutely wanting, particularly as so few of the Nepal plants are noticed by Dr. Wal- lich in the Flora Indica, now publishing under his in- spection : and which are not to appear till the end of that work, which will probably be several years before it is completed. We consider the above publication of Mr. Don’s as an excellent little work, and does the author much credit ; and as Mr. Lambert has received a great number of specimens from Nepal since it was published, we hope before long to see a new edition.

The present plant is a hardy biennial, flowering the second year after being sown ; it will succeed well in the common garden soil, in any open situation, and re- quires no care, but to be kept clear of weeds. Drawn at the Nursery of Mr. Colvill, last Summer.

1. Involucre split through the middle, to show the chaffy receptacle. 2. Scales of the Chaff. 3. Floret. 4. The 5 Stamens showing their united anthers, each with 2 aristas at the base. 5. Seed crowned with a radiate pappus of toothed hairs, and terminated by a Style and bifid Stigma.

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104

ADENOPHORA coronopifolia.

Buck's-horn leaved Adenophora.

Natural Order. Campanulacea:. Brown prodr. 1. p. 559.

ADENOPHORA . Alabastra semper clavata. Ovarium campanulatum. Calyx quinquepartitus : laciniis acutis, nunc integerrimus, nunc glanduloso-dentatis. Stylus glaber aut pubescens, supra incrassatus, et terminatus stigmate brevi, crassiusculo. Styli basis circumdatur gland ula, ex ovarii apice in vaginam cylindraceam aut annularem, longiorem aut brevio- rem, producta. Stamina stylo breviora, basi sua lata spathulae- formi, uninervia et ciliata in cylindrum, glandulam obtegentem, connivent et quasi cobaerent, atque glandulam superne operien- tia desinunt in apicem filamenti glabrum, capillarem, antheram rectam oblongo-linearem gerentem. Corollce profunde campa- nulatae, glabrae. Capsules, ad basin triporosae. Semina majus- cula, planiuscula, fusca. Radices perennes , aut bienni-perennes, napiformes , sape dulces et edules , alba. Folia radicalia, quce plerumque primo , et in perennibus interdum secundo anno reperiuntur , semper sunt longe petiolata, reniformi-subrotunda , grosse serrata , glabra . Caules plerumque numerosi proveniunt ex eadem radice , basi sunt nudi , et folia ima plerumque habent breviora reliquis , fere Veronicarum instar : sunt vero folia aut omnino verticillata , aut sparsa et hinc inde in modum verticil - lorum approximata , sessilia aut petiolata , nunc integerrima et angustissimaf nunc lanceolata, ovata et magis minusve serrata , numerosa. Flores nutantes , dispositi in racemum aut panicu- lam terminalem , multifloram , ramis interdum , secundum nisum generis , verticillatis. Fischer. Adumbratio generis Adeno- phorae. p. 4.

A. coronopifolia , caule stricto, foliis sublanceolatis grosse denta- tis, panicula subracemos&, calyce integerrimo, stylo incluso. Fisch . loc. cit. p. 5.

Adenophora coronopifolia. Fisch. Index Plantarum anno 1824.

in Horto Botanico Imperiali Petropolitano vigentium. p. 2. Campanula coronopifolia. Rcem. et Schult . syst. 5. p. 157. Steud. nomen , p. 141.

Perennial. Stems several from the same root, from 6 to 15 inches in height, rather slender, upright, or a little flexuose, smooth and glossy, tinged with purple at the base. Leaves from the root on long footstalks, roundly-oval, sharply but unequally toothed, smooth

and glossy, strongly and numerously nerved under- neath, reticulately veined. Petioles smooth, channelled on the upper side, and rounded on the lower, purple at the base: stem-leaves lanceolate, lower ones bluntish, the others acute, all sharply serrated with rather dis- tant teeth, attenuated at the base into a sort of foot- stalk. Racemes terminal, from 1 to several flowered, according to the strength of the plant. Flowers nod- ding, of a delicate light blue. Pedicles and Germens tinged with purple. Calyx 5-parted, segments lanceo- late, acute, entire, fringed with glandular hairs. Corolla campanulate, deeply 5-lobed ; lobes spreading, acute. Stameiis 5, short, surrounding the style, the base of the filaments dilated and flat, single nerved, and fringed with short glandular hairs : anthers acute. Style pu- bescent, thickened upwards, scarcely as long as the corolla, surrounded at the base by a short membrana- ceous annular ring. Stigma short and thick, 3-lobed, the lobes at first closed, afterwards spreading.

This beautiful perennial plant is a native of Dahuria; the one from which our drawing was taken, was raised in 1822, at the Nursery of Mr. Colvill, from seed sent by Dr. Fischer, who has separated the present very natural genus from the overgrown one of Campanula ; to this genus belongs, besides the present species, A. verticillata. A. marsupiijlora (Campanula coronata. Rot. reg.) A. Gmelini . A. denticulata (Campanula tricuspidata R. S.) A. latifolia . A. Lamarckii. A. stylosa . and A. communis (Campanula liliifolia, suaveolens, See.)

The present species requires to be planted in a warm border, in light rich soil, and a dryish situation, as it is likely to suffer from too much moisture ; it will also thrive well in a small pot, but will not grow so strong; the plant from which our drawing was made, was cul- tivated in the latter way.

1. Calyx, and inferior gerinen. 2. Corolla spread open. 3. The 5 Stamens surrounding the Style, showing how they are connected by their glandular hairs. 4. Stamen separate, showing the fringed filament. 5. Style surrounded at the base by an annular membrane, and terminated by a spreading 3-lobed Style. C. Stigma with the lobes closed.

105

TAXANTHEMA speciosa.

Plantain-leaved Sea-Lavender .

Natural Order. Plumbaginea:. Brown prodr. 425. TAXANTHEMA. Supra fol. 37.

T. speciosa , scapo ramoso tereti, ramis ancipitibus alatis, flori- bus imbricatis, foliis obovato-cuspidatis mucronatis margine cartilagineis. Willden. sp. pi. 1. p. 1527. sub Statice. Statice speciosa. Pers. syn. 1. p. 333. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 2. p. 182. Botan. magaz. 656. Rcem. et Schult. 6. p. 787.

Root perennial ? Leaves spreading in a radiate form, rigid, obovate, attenuated at the base, terminated in a sharp mucro, margins cartilaginous, of a glaucous or rather white powdery colour, purple at the base. Scape paniculately branching, naked and round at the base, from 6 inches to a foot in height ; branches winged, 3-sided, at the base of each is a scariose sti- pule or bracte, which is cordate, cucullate, and termi- nated with an awl-shaped point. Flowers of a bright pink, in dense interrupted imbricate secund spikes. Bractes as on the scape, but smaller, about the length of or scarcely as long as the calyx. Calyx tubular, funnel form, with a white scariose, 5-plaited, 5-toothed limb, the lower part green with 5 purple stripes down the tube. Corolla of 5 petals ; petals with a long un- guis, and spreading emarginate limb. Stamens 5, inserted in the claws of the petals. Styles 5, each terminated by a small capitate Stigma.

Our drawing of this handsome plant was taken last Summer, at the Garden belonging to the Apothecaries’

VOL. II. c

Company, at Chelsea, where it had been raised the year before by Mr. Anderson, from seeds that he re- ceived from Dr. Fischer. It has been long lost to our collections, till now again introduced. We believe the reason of its present scarcity, is from its suffering from our damp atmosphere, as its native country is much colder than ours, being a native of Russia. We would recommend its being grown in a dry elevated border of light loamy soil ; and it would also be well to keep some plants of it in pots, and preserve them in frames through the Winter ; they can then be turned in the borders in Spring, where they will flower, and ripen their seeds, if properly managed. We have generally seen this species marked as a biennial plant, but from its habits we think there can be little doubt but it is perennial ; and from its being so apt to rot in Winter, is the reason that it is considered as biennial. Seeds, if sown as soon as ripe, will produce plants, some of which will flower the following season ; whereas if the seeds are not sown till the Spring following, it will be another year before those will bloom ; it is therefore better to sow some at both seasons. We would prefer raising them in pots, and, soon after the seedlings are up, transplant them singly into small pots, from which they can, when of sufficient size, be turned into the borders, without missing their removal.

1. Bracte. 2. Calyx, showing its scariose border. 3. The 5 Petals, with the Stamen inserted in the base of each. 4. Germen terminated by the 5 Styles and small capitate Stigmas.

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106

CROCUS pusillus.

Small Crocus.

Natural Order . Iride^e. Brown prodr. 1. p. 302. CROCUS . Spatha plerumque 2-valvis: valvula interior

multo angustior. Perianthium petaloideum, infund ibuliforme : tubo longissimo, basi subterraneo ; limbo 6-partito, regulare. Stigmata 3. Radix tuber oso-tunicata. Foliis gramineis cana - liculatis . Flores radicates , subsolitarii .

C. pusillus , foliis flore longioribus, perianthii laciniis exteriori- bus oblongo-lanceolatis acutis ; interioribus ovatis sub-emar- ginatis multo majoribus.

Crocus pusillus. Tenore. Catalogus plantarum liorti regii Neapolitan i, 1813, p. 31.

Root tunicate, nearly globular, clothed with a smooth glossy brown shell, and producing a long fusiform white tuber on one side when growing, and numerous slender fibres on the other side. Sheath 2-valved, white and membranaceous, scarcely an inch long, roundly obtuse. Leaves erect, smooth, overtopping the flowers, grass-like, taper-pointed, deeply channelled on the upper side, and marked with a longitudinal white stripe, underneath bluntly keeled, margins a little rolled back. Flowers generally 2, clothed at the base and nearly half way up with a white glossy membra- naceous sheath. Perianthium funnel-form, with a long, slender, bluntly angular tube; limb petal-like, 6-parted, spreading, of a pure white, with a pale yellow bottom ; segments concave, outer ones oblong-lanceolate, acute, with 3 bright purple stripes at the back, inner ones ovate, rounded or slightly emarginate, of a pure white,

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nearly double the size of the outer ones. Stamens 3, inserted in the mouth of the tube : filaments smooth, flattened on the inner side and rounded on the outer, about the length of the anthers , which are sagittate, 2-celled, bursting on each side to discharge the pollen: pollen yellow. Style smooth. Stigmas 3, slightly spreading, crested a little, of a bright orange colour, about the length of, or a little longer than the stamens.

The present plant is nearly related to C. bifiorus ; but in that the segments of the perianthium are equal, and all of them rounded, and the outer ones are much more striped with purple, the flowers are double the size, the tube is also much larger in proportion, and more rounded. Mr. Colvill received the plants from which our drawing was taken, last Autumn, from Professor Tenore, with several other curious bulbs; amongst them were his Narcissus prce cox and unicolor; the former proves to be N. italicus , and the other N. papyraceus. Amongst the plants received from him are his Iris fug ax, and I. scorpioides ; the former is a Morsea without doubt, and related to M. Sisyrinchium ; of this we hope to publish a figure in our next Num- ber ; the other, we fear, will not flower this season, but the plants are thriving very well. Several Orchi- deous plants have also been received from him, some of which we hope will flower this season.

Our present subject is a native of Naples, and suc- ceeds well in the open borders, with the same manage- ment as the other species ; it is a very early bloomer, our drawing being made from plants in full flower, the latter end of February.

1. Perianthium spread open to show the insertion of the Stamens, every other segment cut off. 2. Stamen detached. 3. Germen terminated by the Style, and 3 Stigmas.

ranked or distichous. Bracles alternating with the flowers, linearly lanceolate, acute, very hairy, margins reflexed. Pedicles cylindrical, about the length of the segments of the calyx. Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft, angular, segments unequal, lanceolate, scarcely acute, keeled, the upper one largest. Corolla deeply 5-lobed, ringent, much inflated at the mouth, hairy on the out- side, of a dull reddish copper-colour, tube very slender towards the base: lobes scarcely acute, spreading, glossy and channelled on the inner side, and keeled on the outer. Stamens 5, inserted in the base of the tube, about the length of the corolla : filaments densely villous near the base, and smooth upwards : anthers incum- bent, 2-celled. Germen smooth, conical, 2-celled. Style smooth, about the length of the stamens. Stigma capitate, 2-lobed.

This fine species of Tobacco, is one of those that may be considered as rather a tender annual, the seeds of which should be sown on a gentle hot-bed, from which they may be planted into the open borders ; but this should be done in moist weather, except the plants are first transplanted singly into small pots, and have taken fresh root, in a frame or other sheltered situation ; from the pots they may be turned into the open bor- ders when convenient, giving them a good soaking of water when first turned out ; if planted in rich soil, it will grow to the height of 18 inches or 2 feet, in poorer soil it will be considerably less ; if the seeds are sown in the open ground, they should be sown about the middle of April, in a warm border.

Our drawing was taken at the Nursery of Mr. Colvill, last Autumn.

1. Calyx. 2. Corolla spread open, to show the insertion of the Stamens. 3. Stamens detached, showing the hairy filament. 4. Germen terminated by the Style, and 2-lobed capitate Stigma.

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108

LOPEZIA coronata.

Coronet-flowering Lopezia.

Natural Order. Onagraria:. Juss. ann. mus. 3. p. 315.

LOPEZIA. Calyx superus, quadripartitus, deciduus. Co- rolla tetrapetala, irregularis. Stamina 2 ; altero sterili, petali- formi. Anthera oblonga, incumbens. Stigma capitatum. Capsula subglobosa, quadrilocularis, apice tantum loculicido- quadrivalvis, nuda. Placenta centralis dissepimentis semper adnata permanet. Kunth. synops . 3. p. 389.

Herbae erectce , ramosce . Folia alterna , dentata. Flores terminates racemosi , aut axillares solitarii, longe pedunculati . Corollae purpureas.

L. coronata , foliis lucidis, caule angulato e petiolis decurren- tibus, corymbis inferne foliosis. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v.l. p. 10. Lopezia coronata. Andrews's reposit. 551. Rcem. et Schult. syst. 1. 34. Link enum . 1. p. 6.

Annual , much branched at the base. Branches from 1 to 2 feet long, spreading in all directions ; angular, occasioned by the decurrent footstalks of the leaves, smooth, or slightly pubescent at the points, with some small red glands interspersed here and there, likewise on the petioles. Leaves scattered, alternate, opposite or in whorls, elliptic or ovate, often oblique at the base, shallowly and remotely toothed, glossy ; nerves numerous and prominent underneath, simple. Petiole shorter than the blade, channelled on the upper side, and convex on the lower, pubescent. Peduncles axil- lary, solitary, 1 -flowered, very slender, smooth and glossy, of a purple colour, erect when in flower, but declining when^in fruit. Flowers crowning the branch in a corymb-like form, owing to the closeness of the

leaves; but as the branch lengthens, they are at a greater distance from each other. Calyx 4-parted, su- perior ; segments narrow, concave, bluntish, of a reddish colour, lower one at a distance from the others, and much larger. Corolla of 4 petals ; the two upper ones linear, bluntish, of a bright lilac, pointed a little above the base, and on each joint is a small pellucid gland : two side ones larger, with long claws ; lamina roundly obovate, of a light lilac, with a dark red mark at the base, which extends part of the way down the unguis. Stamens 2, inserted in the receptacle : 1 fertile and

1 sterile, the fertile one enclosed in the other : filament wide at the base, and grooved inwards, so as partly to enclose the style ; upper part, near the anther, slen- der, elastic, and springing back as soon as clear of the other ; the anther then discharges its pollen : anthers 2-celled, attached to the filament at the base : barren stamen white, obovate, concave, connivent, or sides folded in, enclosing the fertile stamen and pistil, but as soon as touched it springs back with an elasticity which sets them at liberty. Germen below the calyx, of a glossy green. Style smooth, at first shorter than the stamen, but growing beyond it. Stigma capitate, slightly bearded. Capsule globular, berried.

This curious annual plant will succeed well if sown in a warm border, about the middle of April ; it is also well to sow some seeds of it on a gentle hot-bed, to bring them forward earlier, as they can then be planted in the flower borders, where required ; in rich light soil they will attain the height of 18 inches or 2 feet ; it is very well worth a place in the garden, on account of its singular structure, for, by touching the barren stamen, it immediately springs back with an elasticity, in much the same4nanner as the stamens in Schizan- thus.

Drawn at the Nursery of Mr. Colvill, last Summer.

1. Calyx, showing the unequal spreading segments. 2. The 4 Petals, the

2 upper ones showing the gland on the joint. 3. Barren Stamen. 4. Fertile Stamen. 5. Style, terminated by the bearded Stigma.

109

HELLEBORES dumetorum.

Bush Hellebore .

Natural Order . Ranunculace^e. DC. syst. v. 1. p . 127.

Tribus IV. HELLEBORES. iEstivatio calycis et corolla? imbricata. Petala nunc 0, nunc irregularia bilabiata necta- rifera. Calyx petaloideus. Carpella capsularia dehiscentia polysperma. DC. p. 130.

HELLEBORUS. Calyx persistens 5-sepalus, sepalis subrotundis obtusis magnis saepe viridibus. Petala 8-10 bre- vissima tubulata infern£ angustiora nectar ifera. Stamina 30-60. Ovaria 3-10. Stigmata terminalia orbiculata ; capsulce coria- ceae ; semina duplici serie disposita eliiptica umbilicata. Herbae perennes durce coriacea glabrce aut vix sub foliis pubes - centes ; folia radicalia petiolata palmatim pedatimve secta , segmentis oblongis dentatis ; caulina scepe nulla , forma varia ; caules nunc ramosi multiflori foliosi , nunc subramosi bracteas sub ramis gerentes pauciflori , nunc aphylli uniflori.

Vir. Radices intense purgantes cholagogae, in mania, epi- lepsia, hydropysi^i et hepaticis morbis olim et nunc celeberrimae.

Hab. Species omnes hyeme aut vere florentes, aspera dumetaque submontana Europae mediae et Orientis habitant, praesertim a Pyrenaeis ad Caucasum. DC. 1. c. p. 316.

§. II. Caule pauciflora subdichotomo folia floralia subsessilia fissa aut incisa gerente.

H. dumetorum , foliis radicalibus glaberrimis pedatisectis ; cau- linis subsessilibus palmatisectis, caule tereti bifidei ramoso, sepalis calycinis subrotundis viridibus. DC. syst. 1. p. 320. prodr. 1. p. 47.

Helleborus dumetorum. Waldstein et Kit. ex Willden. enum . v. 2. p. 592. Hort. sub. lond. p. 129. Link enum. 2. p. 98.

Stem short, round, from 4 to 6 inches in height, forked : branches leafy, obsoletely 3-angled, some- times divided, each branch producing from 1 to 3

VOL. II. D

flowers. Leaves smooth and glossy, of a pale green, those at the root on a long footstalk, pedate, spreading; stalk ones sessile, or with a very short flat footstalk, palmately parted : segments lanceolate acute, the middle one longest, all very sharply and sometimes doubly serrated, entire at the base. Peduncles flattish, nodding, thickened upwards. Flowers of a bright green, spreading open. Sepals 5, obovate, with rounded points. Petals 8 to 10, short, erect, tubular, of a yellowish green, with broad emarginate or forked points, narrow and nectariferous at the base. Stamens numerous : filaments unequal in length, more or less spreading, flattish, of a pale yellowish green : anthers ovate, slightly emarginate, two-celled : pollen white. Carpella 3 to 5, each terminated by a smooth, chan- nelled, recurved Style and small orbicular Stigma .

Our drawing of this curious and pretty species was made at the Apothecaries’ Company’s Garden, the beginning of March, when it was in full bloom in the open ground ; it is a native of Hungary, and has been introduced to this country within a few years ; its being so early a bloomer makes it a very desirable plant, although its flowers are not so showy as some others, yet their singularity and early flowering make up for that deficiency. It only attains a few inches in height, so that it should be planted near the front of the flower borders. It succeeds well in the common garden soil, and will thrive in a shady situation, or amongst bushes w here many other plants would not survive. The only way of increasing it is by dividing at the root, or by seeds which are sometimes ripened ; those should be sown as soon as gathered ; the young plants will then come up, and be attaining strength before the Winter sets in.

1. The 5 Sepals. 2. Side view of the Stamens, with 4 of the Petals in front. 3. The 8 Tubular Petals. 4. Stamens. 5. The 4 Carpella, each terminated by a Style, and small capitate Stigma.

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110

MORiEA Tenoreana.

Tenores Morcea.

Natural Order. Iridea:. Brown pro dr. 1. p. 302.

MORJEA, Injlorescentia pauci-pluriflora, fasciculata: spa- this communi bivalvi involutes distincta ; rarb uniflora, raritis in spicam educta. Perianthium hexapetalo-partitum s. tubu- loso-sexfidum : laciniis obversis, rotatis s. inferne conniventi- bus, alternis consimilibus ; exterioribus ungue saepe barbato, saepe foveol& ad basin, lamina nunquam erecta; interioribus angustioribus, rarb minimis v. nullis, interdiim omnino erects. Stylus triquetro-filiformis, erectus, liberus. Stigmata 3, petali- formia, trifaria antice fornicata, posticb carinata, bilabiata labio interiore bifido reflexo exterius breve retusum multoties v. ferine non excedente : raro lineari-radiata, bipartita, seg- ments convoluto-filiformibus. Filamenta perianthii v. limbi disco imposita, libera s. partim v. omninb connata. Anthem erectse, extrorsae, lineari-oblongae, faciebus stigmatum appressae, vel segments intersertae. Capsula membranacea, ovato-globosa ad prismatico-columnarem, 3-locularis, loculis biseriato-poly- spermis, 3-valvis, valvis medio septigeris. Semina septi margini interiori utrinque annexa, rotunda s. angulato-pressa ; albumen corneum.

Radix bulbo-tuber , integumento externo senescente putamineo- Jibroso, reticulato-rimoso ; folia radicalia pauca , transverse bifaria, Jistuloso-vaginantia, inde convolutoAorata , s&pius cau - dato-cuspidata , raro plura et acute canaliculata , nunquam collaterali-disticha ; caulis culmaceus , vaginoso-foliatus , simplex ad ramosissimum rami e vagina ad articulos , soliiarii, interdiim aggregati, raro divisi ; flores terminates, pedunculati, sepiits fugaces . Morcea iridioides ad Iridem cum nomine moraeoi- dis rectius transferenda. Ker Bot. reg. 312.

M. Tenoreana, foliis radicalibus binis longissimis bifariam divergentibus involutis extus striatis, scapo geniculato subra- moso pluriflora, perianthium sexpartitum, laciniis emarginatis cum acumine : exterioribus basi tuberculato-barbatis plus duplo majoribus.

Iris fugax. Tenore jlor. neapolit. 1. 15. t. 4.

Bulb- tuber about the size of a large nut, clothed with a coarse light brown reticulated cartilagineo- fibrous shell. Leaves 2, from a foot to 15 inches in length, tapering to a fine point, bifariously spreading,

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smooth and glossy, sides folded in, so as to leave a large channel in the centre, outside striped with nu- merous small longitudinal lines. Scape pointed, more or less branched, from a foot to 15 inches high, from each joint grows a sheath, about 3 inches long. Sheaths striped with numerous dark green lines, which are crossed here and there, the lower part tubular, clasp- ing the stem, the upper part membranaceous, and ta- pering to a point. Perianthium with a long slender nearly cylindrical tube, of a greenish white, irregu- larly marked with a few red streaks ; divided above into 6 petal-like segments, of a bright blue colour : outer segments unguiculate, from about the middle ovate, reflexed a little, the points broadly emarginate, with a small mucro in the middle, from the bend to the base tuberculately bearded in a longitudinal yellow line, and spotted with purple on each side, terminated above the bend in a large white patch, from which a purple line runs to the point : inner segments scarcely half the size of the outer ones, also emarginate with a mucro at the point. Stamens 3 : filaments smooth. Anthers linear, sharp-pointed. Pollen white. Style slender, smooth, terminated by 3 forked petal-like Stigmas .

Our drawing of this interesting species was taken at the Nursery of Mr. Colvill, from a plant that had been given him in Autumn by Professor Tenore : it is a native of Naples, and requires to be planted in a dry warm border of light sandy soil, or, if planted in a pot, in an equal mixture of light turfy loam, peat, and sand, and protected in a frame in Winter, it will succeed very well. This species is nearly related to Morcea Sisyrinchium , but differs sufficiently in the shape of its petals, and